社會學, 經濟學, 香港研究, 文化研究

棕須一變:香港棕地的過去、現在與未來

棕須一變 - webcover

* For English, please scroll down.

書籍簡介 

  香港只能移山填海,新界規劃注定混亂,鄉郊產業必然消逝,棕地發展阻礙重重?面對時代,民間研究何價何用?《棕須一變》整合多年來有關香港棕地以至整體土地問題的民間著作,在急速轉變的香港,透過認真紮實的民間研究工作,以長時期的深度研究與紀錄,從多方面切入棕地問題,為土地問題提供移山填海以外的真正出路與論述基礎,發掘香港社會仍如何有理有據地敘述自身城市問題的方略,在時代中造就變革的條件。

  「是土地利益、地區勢力與規劃失效,導致新界土地無止境的亂局。」

 

推薦語

十年磨一劍,《棕須一變》一書記錄了本土研究社及民間團體眾志成城、鍥而不捨,為「棕地」正名的過程,由「棕地」 無人認識,至土地大辯論中,成為最多市民支持發展的土地選項;翌年,政府更正式宣佈檢視160公頃棕地作公營房屋發展,是民間社會倡議「棕地」十年後的成果,為香港土地發展史寫下重要一頁。

──朱江,綠色和平項目經理

書籍資料

作者︰本土研究社
書籍設計: 潘柏灝、張朗為
出版: 本土研究社
出版日期:2022年11月

ISBN︰978-988-14095-7-7

定價︰ HK$108
發行價:HK$75.6

作者簡介

本土研究社於2010年創立,2014年註冊為非牟利組織(本土研究社(香港)有限公司),由一群有志推動民間研究及關注香港發展的朋友成立,是一個讓關注不同議題的朋友共同參與研究的實驗平台。我們以研究和知識介入各類議題,提昇社會整體的研究論述能力。

目錄

序/朱江(綠色和平項目經理)

第一章:棕觀全港
  前言
  棕地簡史:歷時十年的里程碑
    Milestone 1: 確立關鍵問題 奠定事實基礎
    Milestone 2: 「棕」望所歸
    Milestone 3: 獲各界民間團體力推
    Milestone 4: 官方政策現突破點
    Milestone 5: 民間監察力度持續不退
  回顧香港土地爭議中的「棕跡」
    破解香港缺地論的良方
    棕地作為方法:推動既有土地發展模式變革
    土地發展局限的突破口
    威權發展下的民間議程
  未完成的議程:有關《棕須一變》

第二章:實況追棕
  棕地現況基本特徵
    面積擴張
    分佈特質
    業權結構
    作業用途
  發展潛力
    整合程度
    位置與可達性
    其他因素
  衍生問題
    與民爭路
    安全問題
    生態災難
    毒害土地
    違法作業
    入侵保育區
  數據問題
    「數據滯後」
    研究範圍的定義
    視覺上「隱性」的棕地
    漏計部門正使用的棕地

第三章:棕地之最
  個案一:元朗橫洲──始亂棕起
    橫洲:一個關於棕地的故事
    「棕止待續」
    「摸底」式諮詢
    劏地產業鏈
    起開有條路
    被選中的人
  個案二:漫長的等待──元朗屏山北棕地群
    一路之隔 命運懸殊
    地權透視  「收地結界」
  個案三:新田石湖圍──因棕地規劃而起的災與禍
    棕地20年擴張4倍
    水土不服
    規劃真空區
    棕地作業 規劃使然
  焦點1:元朗南山下村 棕地偷步毀農 (2013)
  焦點2:大嶼山貝澳 棕入海岸 (2015)
  焦點3:葵涌和宜合村 棕入郊野 (2021)
  焦點4:元朗牛潭尾 違規棕地巨無霸 (2016)
  焦點5:廈村雞白嶺垃圾山 港版肺病村 (2021)
  焦點6:洪水橋沙江圍一帶 無影無棕 (2021)
  焦點7:上水恐龍坑 全港最毒之棕地群落 (2021)
  焦點8:邊境棕區 明日棕地樂園?

第四章:歷史尋棕
  重返山寨之鄉──50年代起湧現的昔日新界「棕地」
如何面對正在失控的鄉郊
    處理「無序」的鄉郊工廠問題
    60年代──應對鄉郊工場問題的契機
    比臨時容忍更進取的進路 (A More Positive Approach)
    分類處理的原則
  還原「小棕地園」的歷史選項
  無疾而「棕」的計劃
    「小棕地園」要復活嗎?
  棕介者:解密鄉議局在昔日棕地問題的角色
    「聯合意見書」:生發案前哨戰
    棕地議題成中英外交風波?

第五章:法規地景
  棕地法規情境題:天水圍泥頭山
    條例漏洞釀出的鄉郊奇景
  【《城市規劃條例》問題之一】規劃執法權的缺陷
  【《城市規劃條例》問題之二】難為用途定分界?
  【《城市規劃條例》問題之三】無法「追棕」過去的改變?
  【《城市規劃條例》問題之四】無法復原的還原要求
  【《城市規劃條例》問題之五】「體恤」違規者的罰則
  【《城市規劃條例》問題之六】 城規棕地指引僅屬參考?
    個案一:更新「露天貯物規劃指引」致逾30宗改劃獲批
    個案二:規劃署改分類助棕地擴張
   【《土地(雜項條文)條例》問題之一】舊批農地「棕身免罪」?
  【《土地(雜項條文)條例》問題之二】僭建物的移動論
  【《土地(雜項條文)條例》問題之三】霸官地
  【《土地(雜項條文)條例》問題之四】違規者可無償霸地?
  【《廢物處置條例》問題之一】何謂垃圾 只在乎地主觀點與角度?
  【《廢物處置條例》問題之二】無懼罰則棕成廢例
  小結:條例漏洞助長棕地擴散

第六章:棕須一變──面向未來的城市路線圖
  通往變革的三大「棕」極難題
    難題一:轉念──如何確立可持續的土地發展觀?
    難題二:破/立──如何能從既得利益者的影響下促成改變?
    難題三:未來──面向未來的城市棕地政策
  棕地變革路線圖
    確立藍圖
    源頭堵截:不再成為垃圾的大地
    動態盤點:棕地的全面持續盤點
    訂立可負擔房屋目標
    訂立長遠重置棕地作業政策

終章:研究遊棕 ——研究員的觀察及看法

附錄
附錄一:棕地定義及政策流變(參照《棕跡》更新)
附錄二:如何修補生發案漏洞?港英政府的三大方案

試閱/Preview

立即購買Buy Now

 

The ‘Field’ to Change: Hong Kong’s Brownfield Policy in the Past, Present and Future

Book Description

Is reclamation inevitable? Is the rural New Territories “unplannable”? In land-scarce Hong Kong, why is brownfield land still a “taboo” in the eyes of urban planners?

Adopting a community research approach, The ‘Field’ to Change tries to answer these perennial questions. This book consolidates the yearslong research on a range of issues from the brownfields to the broader land question in Hong Kong. Grounded on substantive research over the years, it dissects the brownfield issue from multiple perspectives. The new discourses provide a point of departure for drawing up a blueprint to tackle Hong Kong’s land problem by more sustainable development options other than reclamation.

“There are three obstacles to cleaning up the mess in the unruly New Territories: landed interests, village gentries and failure in proper planning.”

 

Recommendations 

As the Chinese saying goes, “it takes a decade to sharpen a sword”. The book reflects the perseverance of the Liber Research Community and the civil society in conceptualising “brownfield land”. “Brownfield land” transformed from an unknown into the most popular land development option in the “Land Debate” in 2018. In the following year, the government announced the official review of 160 hectares of brownfield land for public housing development. This was the achievement of the civil society in its advocacy of brownfield land redevelopment over the last the years and marked an important page in the history of land development in Hong Kong.

──Andy Chu, Programme Manager, Greenpeace

 

Book information

Author: Liber Research Community
Book design: Russell Pun, Kest Cheung
Publisher: Liber Research Community
Publication date: November 2022

ISBN: 978-988-14095-8-4

Retail price: HK$108
Wholesale price: HK$75.6

 

About the author

Registered as a non-profit organization in 2014, Liber Research Community (HK) Company Limited consists of a group of people who undertake independent research with the development of Hong Kong in mind. Liber Research Community is a testing ground where people with different research interests can get together and improve the research capacity of society as a whole.

 

Content

Foreword: Andy Chu (Programme Manager, Greenpeace)

Chapter 1: An overview of brownfields in Hong Kong
  Preface
  A brief history of brownfield policy: Milestones over the past decade
    Milestone 1: Key questions identified for a more solid factual foundation
    Milestone 2: Brownfield sites as the most popular land option
    Milestone 3: Brownfield development supported by civil society
    Milestone 4: Policy breakthrough
    Milestone 5: Ongoing public scrutiny
  Brownfields as a land controversy in Hong Kong: An overview
    Debunking the myth of “land shortage” in Hong Kong
    Brownfields as a method: Changing land development patterns
    Breakthroughs in land development
    The civil agenda under an increasingly authoritarian policy-making environment
  Unfinished agenda: About the book

Chapter 2: Tracing brownfields
  Major characteristics of brownfield land
    Spatial expansion
    Distribution and features
    Ownership structure
    Operations and uses
  Development potential
    Degree of clustering
    Locations and accessibility
    Other factors
  Problems caused by brownfield expansion
    Poor pedestrians and vehicles separation
    Safety problems
    Ecological catastrophes
    Land pollution
    Hotbed of illegal activities
    Encroaching conservation zones
  Problematic data collection in official surveys
    Outdated data
    Incomplete scope of research
    Fallen off the radar- “Hidden” brownfield sites
    Sites used by government departments omitted from official surveys

Chapter 3: Case Studies: prominent examples of brownfield land
  Case 1: Wang Chau, Yuen Long- The Origin of the Brownfield Controversy
    The Wang Chau saga
    Brownfield issues – adjourn sine die
Under-the-table deals
    Land-subletting business
    Road works paving the way for private development
    The victims
  Case 2: The Longest Delay: Brownfield clusters in Ping Shan, Yuen Long
    A road away makes a totally different fate
    Land ownership pattern influenced resumption decisions
  Case 3: Flooding in Shek Wu Wai, San Tin: Natural disaster or man-made  misfortune?
    Brownfield land quadrupled in 20 years
    The top flooding blackspot in Hong Kong
    The “Planning vacuum”
    Poor planning fueled brownfield activities
  
    Focus 1: Shan Ha Tsuen, Yuen Long: Farmlands damaged by brownfield operations (2013)
    Focus 2: Pui O, Lantau Island: Brownfield sites encroaching the coast (2015)
    Focus 3: Wo Yi Hop Tsuen, Kwai Chung: Brownfield sites encroaching the Country Park (2021)
    Focus 4: Ngau Tam Mei, Yuen Long: Gigantic illegal brownfield operations (2016)
    Focus 5: Ha Tsuen and Kai Pak Ling: Hong Kong’s “lung disease village”
    Focus 6: Sha Kong Wai, Hung Shui Kiu: the neglected brownfield clusters (2021)
    Focus 7: Hung Lung Hang, Sheung Shui: The most poisonous brownfield cluster
    Focus 8: Wetland at the border: facing imminent danger of brownfield encroachment

Chapter 4: Tracing the birth of the brownfield crisis through an archival lens
  Cottage factories: Emerging “brownfield sites” in the New Territories since the 1950s
  Taming the unruly rural areas
    Dealing with the uncontrolled spread of rural workshops
    1960s-Opportunities for solving the rural factory problem
    A More Positive Approach
    The classification principle
  The “Small Brownfield Park” proposal revisited
  The plan went in smoke
    Should the government revive the plan?
  The insatiable: The role of Heung Yee Kuk in the brownfield problem
    The “Joint Opinion”: A prelude to the Melhado Case
    Escalating into a diplomatic clash

Chapter 5: Legal issues and brownfield landscapes
  The Tin Shui Wai “waste dump”
    A rural spectacle created by legal loopholes
    [Town Planning Ordinance: Issue 1] Incomplete enforcement power
    [Town Planning Ordinance: Issue 2] Ill-defined land uses
    [Town Planning Ordinance: Issue 3] What defines changes of land uses?
    [Town Planning Ordinance: Issue 4] Unfulfilled reinstatement
    [Town Planning Ordinance: Issue 5]  Punished for sympathy
    [Town Planning Ordinance: Issue 6]  Town Planning Guidelines: a toothless tiger?

    Case 1: 30 rezoning applications approved after the amendments to the “Open Storage” Planning Guidelines
    Case 2: Thin end of the wedge: changing zoning categories fueled brownfield expansion
    [Land (Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance: Issue 1] Are brownfield operations on farmland under Block Crown Lease exempted from regulation?
    [Land (Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance: Issue 2]  “Movable” unauthorised building works
    [Land (Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance: Issue 3] Occupying government land
    [Land (Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance: Issue 4] Offenders occupying government land at no cost
    [Waste Disposal Ordinance: Issue 1] Is waste in the eye of the landholders?
    [Waste Disposal Ordinance: Issue 2 ] Toothless penalties that deter nobody
Legal loopholes encourage brownfield expansion

Chapter 6: A forward-looking roadmap
  Three ultimate obstacles to address brownfield issues
    Obstacle 1: Changing mindset – How to form a sustainable vision of land development?
    Obstacle 2: Deconstruction/Reconstruction –How can we facilitate changes under the influence of vested interests?
    Obstacle 3: The Future — A forward-looking urban brownfield policy
  
A roadmap for a change to brownfield issues
    
Drawing a blueprint
    
Getting to the root cause: No more land should be used as dump sites
    Regular stock-taking of brownfield land
    Setting an affordable housing target
    Establishing a long-term policy for relocation of brownfield operations

Chapter 7: Finale- words from our researchers

Appendices
Appendix 1: Definitions of brownfields and policy changes
Appendix 2: How to plug the loopholes created by the Melhado Case: Three solutions proposed by the British Hong Kong Government

發表迴響

在下方填入你的資料或按右方圖示以社群網站登入:

WordPress.com 標誌

您的留言將使用 WordPress.com 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

Twitter picture

您的留言將使用 Twitter 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

Facebook照片

您的留言將使用 Facebook 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

連結到 %s